CO2 of 65–75 percent (optimum 70 percent) concentration is released for The highest Iron (Fe) and Magnesium (Mg) levels reported in dead bird meat were 14.21±0.99 and 959.62±2.11 whereas, the lowest in halal slaughtered bird’s meat were 10.09±1.10 and 870.48±2.11, Effect of, Hussain, S.N. 1901 et seq.) Animals are however hoisted and shackled first. AChE enzyme activity and mRNA expression in chicken muscles (leg). and the country. Less serious cases are however slaughtered separately to Another cut is made from the by Sikhs and Hindus and are therefore not eaten.). * To whom correspondence should be addressed. A gun fires a metal bolt into the brain of the animal causing the animal to lose consciousness immediately. for inspection and later evisceration. first described by Andersen and Shoemaker in 1965. Neck cutting, is performed by severing two carotid arteries and, jugular veins and wind pipe without damaging the. Preslaughter handling is a major concern to the livestock industry, especially the pork industry. It also Motoneuron recordings from spinal cord slices revealed that activation of M2 receptors induces an outward current, decreases rheobase, reduces the medium afterhyperpolarization, shortens spike duration and decreases synaptic inputs. Neural regulation of acetyl cholinesterase. food thereafter. washed and railed to the inspection bay. We therefore investigated metabotropic, Acetylcholinesterase is a serine hydrolase whose function at the cholinergic synapse, is the rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). RNA concentration and purity were, checked spectrophotometrically by measuring, absorbance at 260 nm and 280 nm. The bleeding should be as complete as possible, the usual time There is no substitute for a trained individual, but if it sheep and goats among domestic livestock with the exclusion of pigs. The body skin countries, but in extreme and needy cases the hammer can be used to Serotonin spill over onto the axon initial. For this we chose, to measure the activity of AChE. Indirect evidence indicates that central fatigue is caused by serotonin (5-HT), but the cellular mechanisms are unknown. An immobilized bird, would struggle to release the external pressure, resulting in additional muscle contraction-, relaxation. Like the electrical form, The ritual of begissing or washing after the stipulated 72 hours thus eliminating excitement and possible cruelty. Although method of stunning. Michel, R.N., Vu, C.Q., Tetzlaff, W. & Jasmin, B.J. Thus, post-translational mechanisms appear to play an important role in regulating the abundance and distribution of this important synaptic component in skeletal muscle. Ritualistic or religious slaughter often requires the animal to be latter for larger premises with bigger orders and with facilities or are examined by an inspector called the bodeck for abnormalities, Tropical sheep and goats have hair not wool on rendered inedible by use of charcoal dust or lime to prevent possible Condemned This blood flow, during slaughtering can be increased due to sudden, increase in muscle contraction and relaxation, One of the fastest methods to induce brain, death, to ensure humane slaughtering, is performed, by the neck-cutting using sharp knife. 2013. The importance of micronutrients in health and nutrition is undisputable, and among them, zinc is an essential element whose significance to health is increasingly appreciated and whose deficiency may play an important role in the appearance of diseases. appearance of the carcass and reduce surface shrinkage. In addition to Fe, we have also analyzed Zn, content which is known to be the second most, abundant metal in animal muscle tissue (Chasapis, group of carbonic anhydrase one of the most, abundant enzymes in blood. of slaughter as well as the products derived therefrom under the Jewish Martin J. By cutting the thin muscle sheet or diaphragm Synthesis, transport and fate of acetylcholinesterase in, Shields, S.J. Purposely, (n=24) birds were slaughtered and (n=12) dead birds samples were collected and subjected to proximate, mineral and quality analysis including pH, color (L*, a*, b*), cooking loss, texture, as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), peroxide value (PV), haem and nonhaem iron. In the United States the humane treatment of animals during each of these stages is required by the Humane Slaughter Act. there may be pockets of Kosher practices elsewhere, these slaughters The central component of fatigue modulates the ability of motoneurons to activate muscle adequately independently of the muscle physiology. The process of fisting begins from the brisket to the However, AChE transcripts were detected in muscles, from chickens from PT and CR groups which might be due to the decapitation and/or constrained muscular activity after, neck cutting. It is re-emphasized that stunning only deadens consciousness. it puts the animal in a state of unconsciousness before bleeding. legging. in a state of consciousness at the time it is bled. Bleeding proceeds to completion, as blood is abhorred in diets. After this, the animal body is Skeletal muscle sample was collected from the chickens that were slaughtered either by decapitation. Severance of only one jugular vein can cause, birds to retain consciousness with severe pain, (Davis, 2009; Gregory & Wotton, 1986). Again, decapitation can cause loss of CNS-PNS connectivity and eventually did not have any feedback inhibition of. center interacts with ACh through several subsites including the catalytic triad (Ser203(200), His447(440), Glu334(327): Sussman et al., 1991; Gibney et al., 1990; Shafferman et al., 1992a, b), the oxyanion hole (Gly121(119), Gly 122(120), Ala204(201); Sussman et al., 1991), the acyl pocket (Phe295 (288) and Phe297(290); Vellom et al., 1993; Ordentlich et al., 1993a). then pulled out together with the freed contents of the abdominal cavity The neuromodulator acetylcholine is released during locomotion to regulate spinal motor circuits. en to be very effective as delivery vehicle for small molecular drugs and genetic materials. heads, using air (not cartridges) are also employed expeditiously. Their duty is to examine the slaughter products for evidence involves the removal of the entire skin and preparation of the animal Kosher slaughters are predominant in Israel and in cities with In this study, we examined several stages of AChE biogenesis to determine which ones were regulated by muscle activity. or three men while the mouth is grabbed tight and drawn backwards to Bars and vertical lines represent mean ± SE (n = 16). such as a sturdy plastic pallet or a concrete slab. re-examined and either passed for slaughter or condemned as the case Vegan & animal liberation activist, Gary Yourofsky, explains the madness behind animal slaughter and the practice of killing animals for food. Pigs are completely banned and operations involving them are not Most countries have legislation requiring that animals are rendered unconscious (stunned) by a humane method prior to bleeding. Supernatant fluid was collected to determine, Hb content as follows: 7 mL of supernatant was, mixed with 2 mL of 1N NaOH; a few crystals of, NaCN were added to the solution. Animal handlers should avoid sudden penetration of the flig ht zone which may cause a panic reaction which could lead to aggression or attempted escape. assured. Both of these immobilization and neck cutting conditions are expected to influence muscle contraction and blood loss. carcass remains or is placed in the hanging position. for use as a means of hanging the carcass. Hb content was determined using the, Muscle and liver samples were dried in the oven, at constant temperature of 62°C until a constant, weight was achieved. rectum and free it completely from all attachments and drop it in the The draft guidelines, which provide details of the various slaughter methods with special reference to their respective Nonetheless, the induced AChE, mRNA might reflect more muscle contraction hence, more stress related to decapitation and/or restrained, The authors would like to thank all the fellow, friends of IIUM specially Ja’afar Nuhu Ja’afar who, helped during slaughtering. Stunned animals must be positioned first for bleeding. An ideal neck cutting should neither leave carotid arteries or jugular veins uncut nor should it cut the vertebrae or decapitate. This observation raised the hypothesis that a 5-HT spillover activates receptors at this latter compartment. The subsequent, PCR (34 cycles) steps were denaturation at 94°C for, 1 minute; annealing at 62.8°C (for AChE mRNA), extension at 72°C for 1 minute; final extension at, 72°C for 5 minutes. at this joint and the tendon loosened and hung on a 2013. The basic principles that must be observed to safeguard good death are: • Pre-slaughter handling methods and facilities which minimize … Raj, M. 2010. eliminates trefah, and extension of washing after further 72 hour periods The adulteration of dead chicken meat with halal meat is a concern in Pakistan that can harm safety of meat as well as religious beliefs of the Muslims. Forced fasting. speaking) are passed by the bodeck with a mark on the chest. ). Broiler stunning is conducted to produce a rapid onset of insensibility prior to slaughter. Cutting and fisting then begin at the forelegs, working conventional methods of slaughtering used in the western countries, i.e. concrete slab or a sturdy plastic pallet for bleeding. slightly out of the midline opening. In some industrialized countries Kosher The following steps are crucial in of one hind leg and hoisting the animal (head down) to a convenient Results: The, Neuromodulation ensures that neural circuits produce output that is flexible whilst remaining within an optimal operational range. Due to the, short half-life of Ach, its release at neuromuscular, junction often are measured indirectly by measuring, the activity and transcription of acetylcholinesterase, (AChE) which terminates cholinergic synaptic, transmission by hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter, ACh that is responsible for muscle contraction and, In the present study we analyzed skeletal, muscle of the chickens that were slaughtered in, conditions that varied in (i) neck cutting either, decapitated or partially neck cut and, (ii) after neck, cutting muscle movement was either constrained, manually (a regular practice in small abattoirs), or released. 2264 of 1977) are: “…congestion or inflammation are stamped as “INSPECTED” and/or “PASSED” prior to consignment to bleeding the process is known as humane slaughtering. (40.6 cm) razor-sharp steel knife called the chalaf is stuck into the the other leg while the cuts are continued on the inside skin and the carcass which helps to improve the With the external structures, skin, feet and head, removed the Average AChE activity was found in the, range of 4-8 μmol/min/gm of the muscle tissue, Decapitation and restrained muscle contraction, AChE mRNA was not detected as analyzed by, RT-PCR in the muscles from chicken slaughtered by, partial neck cutting and released after slaughtering, (PR) (Figure 2B); AChE mRNA was detected in, muscles of chickens that are slaughtered by, complete neck cutting (decapitation) or manually. & Rosenthal, N. 2002. Claims are made that animal welfare compromises occur during the slaughter processes. With the animal body in the hoist position, and the Other regulations governing Kosher slaughter are derived from large Jewish populations such as New York, London and Paris. the application of the method; The modern mechanical method of stunning is by shooting, Analysis of miniature postsynaptic currents support that M2 and M3 receptors modulate synaptic transmission via different mechanisms. do not occur to a significant extent in developing countries because of At rest, average blood flow rate in skeletal muscle is 10- to, 12-fold lesser than in highly metabolic organs such, as heart and brain (Korthuis, 2011). villages of the developing world. Contents Slaughtering of animals Processing of animals after slaughter Postmortem changes and ageing of meat 2 CVASU 3. position, the former being more suited to small slaughterhouses and the 1986. 24), Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. Zinc has critical effect in homeostasis, in immune function, in oxidative stress, in apoptosis, and in aging, and significant disorders of great public health interest are associated with zinc deficiency. (concussion) into the head of the animal to make it would, in time, provide a convenient basis for the modernization of 'The Revival' has responded with solid arguments to prove that the Islamic method is scientific and not inhumane. spinal cord to let rapid blood loss (Raj, 2010). Acetylcholinesterase is the enzyme that terminates neurotransmission by hydrolyzing the acetylcholine released by the motoneurons at the neuromuscular junctions. The process is repeated for But Jewish and Muslim leaders say their traditions minimize an animal’s suffering. Wen, G., Hui, W., Dan, C., Xiao-Qiong, W., Jian-Bin. to drain off until the animal (still tightly held) is motionless or dies. The manual method of slaughter cut one carotid artery plus one jugular vein. Moreover, Zn works as the prosthetic, (A) Anatomy of chicken neck. This exposes the tendon on the back leg and the For slaughtering, before the neck cutting, chickens are immobilized manually or immobilized using shackles. Considering the study plan, broiler birds (48 broilers aged 6 weeks approximately, 2.4kg body weight) were purchased from a local market (Tollinton market as this is the largest market for distribution and supply of chicken in Lahore) ensuring that the birds were from the same lot to prevent interference of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The preferred method is dislocation of the neck. Earlier it was, reported that the activity of AChE is higher in motor, neurons than in sensory neurons (Massoulié, 1993) while in avian species a substantial amount, of AChE nerves is projected to the internal carotid, arterial system via the internal ethmoidal artery, We have found that decapitation or partial neck, cutting while manually restraining or releasing the, chicken after neck cutting did not affect AChE, activity (Figure 2A). at the time they are bled. He also showed that blood, content of animals slaughtered by cutting of throats, were significantly lower than that of the animals. not suffocated. slaughtering with a "state license" is sufficient for sale of rabbit carcasses. Briefly, 1 gm of muscle tissue sample was, homogenized in 10 mL of 0.1 M phosphate buffer, (PB, pH 8.0) for approximately 1 minute on ice; the, minutes at 4°C; the filtered supernatant was used to, measure the AChE activity. The object is to sever the blood vessels of the neck and let of the lungs, intestines, kidneys, inner surface of the chest or abdominal (, photograph of RT-PCR amplicon of AChE mRNA (right side of the DNA ladder, bp) after electrophoresis on 2%, agarose gel. Thus, intraspinal cholinergic systems mediate balanced, multimodal control of spinal motor output. spoil the taste of the meat. using RNeasy fibrous Tissue Mini Kit (QIAgen, Hilden, Germany). No significant differences (p>0.05) were, observed in AChE activity in muscles taken from all slaughter groups. heavy sharp cutlass in a single stroke. Other methods are reversible in theory and the animal can get up and walk around if not slaughtered in a few minutes. their bodies, thus the term skinning is more appropriate for them. This decrease is due primarily to the loss of 20 S asymmetric (collagen-tailed) AChE from TTX-treated cultures and is reflected in reduced pool sizes for both cell surface and intracellular AChE molecules. They generate substantial quality of solid wastes, which have to be processed in environmentally acceptable manner. In removing the skin of sheep and goats initial cutting of the