If seeds are to be used they should be planted in late spring or early summer. Grieve, M. Lavenders. The highest percentage of rooting was obtained from 8-10 cm long, 1-year-old cuttings in open beds in October-November (Boyadzhieva et al., 1977). if seeds are to be used, these should be sown in late spring or early summer. In a germination study of lavender seeds, the effects of gibberellic acid, light/dark regimes, and pre-freezing were studied. 1960. It can reach 3 feet in height and spread. Commercial uses can include essential oil production, cosmetic manufacturing, sale to restaurants (salads, food flavorings), sachets, tea, potpourri, soaps, or sale of ornamental plants. Plants grown from seed are variable in growth habit, color, and essential oil composition and are unsuitable for commercial harvesting. Once it roots, the new stem is treated just like any other lavender start that would be grown from seed. A defoliating moth larva has been reported in Australia. plants grown from seed are variable in growth habit, colour and essential oil composition. www.crop.cri.nz/broadshe/lavender.htm. Agriculture Handbook No. Mana Kai Rangahou, New Zealand. When regenerants were planted in fields, quality characteristics, including essential oil concentrations, were similar to parent plants. An Austrian study provided evidence of sedative effects of the essential oil of lavender after inhalation. Both leaf size and plant height (3 ft) are larger in lavandin when compared to English lavender. Can you ever have too many lavender plants? 210-11. Foliar applications had positive effects on plant height (P 1%) and dry weight (S 1% + P 1%) of herb. Septoria lavandulae -­ leaf spot Phytophthora spp. To maintain varieties lines lavender should not be propagated from seed. Egyptian Journal of Horticulture 23(2):167-178. Describe of a variety of lavender species and cultivars. (Optional) The project doesn’t require any special equipment, and it’s easy enough for a beginner. Prototype for flame weed control in medicinal and aromatic plants. It is generally treated as an annual and grown as an ornamental. Gibbs Smith Publisher, Utah. Plants grown from seed are variable in growth habit, color, and essential oil composition and are unsuitable for commercial harvesting. 30(2):292-293. L. stoechas oil is high in camphor (24-72 %), borneol, cineole, fenchone, (up to 34%), linalool acetate, and others. and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. germination rates are low and seedlings are slow to reach transplant- ing size. The Business of Herbs. In a 1992 study on the micropropagation of Lavenders and Lavandins, a tissue culture protocol was established for the mass propagation of disease free plantlets from commercial hybrid stock plants. Spanish lavenders tolerate more acid soils than other lavenders but are not hardy and need to be treated as annuals and are generally grown as ornamentals. Yale Medical Library. Scientia-Agricola. Aoyama, E., Ono, E., Furlan, M. 1996. Its elegant flowers are often used for dried flower production. During the Middle ages it was considered an herb of love and was used as an aphrodisiac. Find the perfect commercial lavender production stock photo. Hardwood is thicker than softwood and resists bending. Lavender is mainly propagated by cuttings, layering, and division of roots. Lavender oil contains up to 40% linalyl acetate and 30% linalol. Plants are harvested from the second through the fifth year at which time some growers replant. Lavender plant is originated in Mediterranean region. Vascular wilts are most common in the month of August when temperatures reach 90° F and humidity reaches 90%. The cultivars of Lavender and Lavandin (Labiatae). Lavender Propagation As these are naturally short-lived plants, even the bravest pruning regime will probably only extend a lavender’s life to ten years or so. Propagation by seed creates overlapping traits and further variation within cultivars. Horticultural cultivars include Dutch, Grappenhall, Hidcote Giant, Old English, Provence, Seal, and Silver Gray. Wait several days between tugs, as you can damage tender young roots by tugging on them too often. 426:561-572. Closer to home Thomas DeBaggio successfully propagates lavender from stem tip cuttings. In addition, because most lavender varieties are clones, vegetative propagation (cuttings, layerings, and division of roots) is highly recommended to retain desirable traits. Currently, the majority of lavender products are utilized for essential oil production and for their aromatic properties. In ancient Egypt it was used as a perfume and as an essential ingredient for incense. 24(1):7-17. Fusarium solani – wilt Tsachev, S., Zlatev, S., Neshev, M. 1976. Culpeper (1652) suggests, “two spoonfuls of the distilled water of the flowers taken helpeth them that have lost their voice; as also the tremblings and passions of the heart, and faintings and swounings”, Salmon suggests (Herbal, 1710) that “it is also good against the bitings of serpents, mad-dogs and other venomous creature, being given inwardly and applied poultice-wise to the parts wounded. Written by Joe-Ann McCoy, Ph.D. 1999. Atti del convegno internazionale: Coltivazione e miglioramento di piante officinali, Trento, Italy. 1996 www.frontiercoop.com/aromatherapy/esso.n11.html. This species is grown for its rosemary-scented flowers and for potpourri production. Tissue culture regenerants can produce disease-free, genetically identical plants from parent plants exhibiting desirable traits. Agronomie (Paris). CUTTINGS. propagation by seed is not recommended for commercial lavender production. 30(3): 244-246. Linalol is a terpene alcohol that is non-toxic to humans, yet naturally antimicrobial. XIV(6):27-29. Slow growth rates should be expected in the first year (6-8 in). Cuttings are placed in trays being careful not to allow leaves to touch soil surfaces, which can result in burning the leaves. From our experience growing lavender we have found that many Angustifolia varieties do grow excellent here with little to NO soil amendments. In bioactivity studies in India, lavendula species have been proven to show potent activity against insect pests (Sharma et al., 1992). In China, Lavender is used in a cure-all medicinal oil called White Flower Oil. Send Explanation. Lavandin is a sterile hybrid and must be vegetatively propagated. Introduction to Commercial Lavender Production Harvesting, Drying, Pruning ... • Lavender needs to be pruned back hard, or plants will become too large, woody and will splay open in the middle. L. angustifolia oil contains linalyl acetate (up to 40%), linalool (~25%), geraniol and its esters. Other constituents of the oil are cineol, pinene, limonene, geraniol, borneol and some tannin. Pruning lavender at least twice a year is an important way to ensure it stays bushy and healthy, so there’s no harm in taking the offcuts from routine pruning to create even more lovely lavender plants.. Zeitschrift Fuer Naturforschung Section C Biosciences 46(11-12):1067-1072. The maximum value of essential oil was obtained with S as a 1% foliar application (Hussein et al., 1996). Thomas DeBaggio of DeBaggio Herbs in Arlington, VA, has reported that lavenders develop optimally with 33 inches of annual rainfall. Sturdivant, L. and Blakley, T. 1999. Its flowers are dried for crafting and for use in potpourri. Lavender can be containers/pots, and backyards. Lavender can be grown in backyards, pots/containers as well. If a good cover crop had been grown or manure was added to the field before planting, fertilization may not be necessary for several years. Hankins, A. “Lavender”. Ideal Soil For Lavender Farm. In the book “A Modern Herbal” published in 1931, Mrs. M. Grieve suggests taking cuttings from young wood in fall or spring by pulling a healthy branch downward so that a piece of the older wood (heel) is retained. Hardy Lavenders. English lavender varieties are more susceptible to vascular wilts than lavandin varieties. 1999 was dubbed the “Year of Lavender”; as a result there was an increased demand for information and literature concerning all aspects associated with lavender production. Every fall, we propagate thousands of organic lavender plants from cuttings. Describe the production processes on a lavender farm. With cuttings, you can rest assured that your new plants will be exactly like the parent plants. El-Sherbeny, S., El-Saeid, H., Hussein, M. 1997. It may snap if you force it to bend. French lavender or Fringed lavender (Lavendula dentata) grows up to three feet in height. Uncovered flats are placed in a partially shaded greenhouse for propagation. Verticillium – wilt. What made it so helpful? Young plants should be set out in early spring in rows 2 feet apart with one foot spacing between plants. Propagating lavender from cuttings is an easy and fun way to get more. Lavender Production, Products, Markets, and Entertainment Farms This publication is intended for a beginning lavender grower with some horticultural experience. Janick, J., and Simon, J. John Wiley and Sons, NY. The most common disease problem with lavender is wilt. – wilt Yield and quality of lavender in relation to foliar application of sulphur and phosphorus. Extension Specialist, Herbs / Organics / Specialty Crops / Vegetables / Hemp. Acta-Horticulturae. A U-shaped piece of wire can be used to hold the stem section firmly in place. L. lanata, wooly lavander, is an exceptional potpourri plant because of its balsam-lavender fragrance. What separates NC State University from other schools? The following information was compiled from a literature review in 1999, which will hopefully provide helpful information sources to the interested grower. Press the stem into the indention and cover the bare section with moist soil or a sphagnum moss and perlite combination. Here is a step-by-step guide on how to propagate lavender from … The leaves are opposite, sessile, entire, blunt and linear or lance-shaped. The name “lavender” comes from the Latin verb lavare “to wash” or “to bathe.” There are approximately 20 species of lavender with hundreds of various genotypes differentiated by variations ranging from growth form to chemical composition of essential oil. Lavender grows best in light soil, sand, or gravel, in a dry, open and sunny position. Douglas, J. This species grows in Spain and warm temperate regions. Foster, S. 1993. Effects of aromatic plants on potato storage: sprout suppression and antimicrobial activity. Removed plants are divided into approximately 3 plants each and replanted in new rows. Culpeper, N. 1652. The bioactivity of lavandula species against insects in India proved that the majority of the plants studied showed activity against insect pests (Sharma et al., 1992). Tissue culture (syn., in vitro culture, micropropagation) methods have been developed for the mass propagation of lavender varieties from hybrid stock plants. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Commercial lavender plantations are usually established by planting in single rows spaced appropriately to allow tractor access. propagation in a specific agricultural production context. Seed propagation is not ideal for most home gardeners, although it is the best propagation method to use for breeding new lavender varieties. Based in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, we reach millions of pp. These cuttings are placed in moist sandy soil in a shaded cold frame or in pots with lath protection. However, you may go for fresh selling or value-added products. Chambdon, C., Poupet, A., Beck, D., Bettachini, B., Touche, J. Lavender oil is soluble in all proportions of alcohol. Its unique attributes include that it germinates quickly (14-28 days; 78% germination), it comes true from seed, and blooms the first year (south- 3 months; north- 5-6 months). The calyx is tubular and ribbed, with thirteen veins, purple-gray in color, five-toothed and hairy with shiny oil glands among the hairs visible with a hand lens. Recent studies have found that essential oils from this extraordinary species can replace chemical methods currently in use to suppress sprouting in potato tubers for storage (Vokou, 1993). Kowalchik, C., and Hylton, W., Eds. Woody herbs propagate by layering naturally when trailing branches grow close to the soil surface and send down roots, which create new plantlets. The publication discusses geographic and climatic considerations for lavender, soil preparation and cultivation techniques, lavender propagation materials, and fi eld production. Armillaria mellea ­ root rot Today on Wisconsin Wonder Garden you will learn how to take cuttings from your Lavender and more importantly HOW TO GET THEM TO GROW! A collection of lavenders, Part 2. There are many cultivars of English Lavender including the white dwarf Nana Alba, also pink varieties designated Rosea, Jean Davis, and Lodden Pink, which may be the same cultivar. Check to see if the stems have roots by giving them a gentle tug. This is NOT the way to efficiently prune lavender! The NC Alternative Crops and Organics Program, led by Jeanine Davis in the Department of Horticultural Science, helps farmers improve the sustainability and profitability of their farms through exploration of new crop opportunities, testing of improved varieties and production practices for conventional and organic vegetable growers, and development of environmentally friendly production systems. Update by Jeanine Davis, 2020: There is a renewed interest in growing lavender in North Carolina and many new, small lavender farms are now established across the state. If you plan to keep the plant in a pot for more than two or three weeks, transplant it into a larger pot with regular potting soil that drains freely. Describe commercial lavender growing operations. Fusarium – root rot Most lavenders are hardy to USDA zones 5 to 9, but if you live in an area where the winter temperatures get below about -10 degrees F, consider taking some cuttings of your favorite plants in early fall and growing them indoors over the winter in case your outdoor plants freeze out. Linalyl acetate, its acetic ester, has a pleasant, sweet, fruity, aroma which along with its antimicrobial properties makes lavender unique. Cuttings are placed in a soil medium composed of one part perlite and one part peat moss (11x21x2 1/2-inch plastic flats which hold 100-300 cuttings). To grow this plant you must have a right climate similar to Mediterranean area. Another study in Austria provided evidence of the sedative effects of the essential oil of lavender after inhalation (Buchbauer et al., 1992). ‘Irene Doyle’ Lavender. She recommends protecting plants from both summer and winter winds to prevent damage to the spikes. L. stoechas, Spanish lavender, is a woody shrub growing to four feet tall with linear to oblong, lance shaped leaves about 3/4 inch diameter with 3/8 inch, dark purple flowers. Lavender propagation through cutting involves taking a cutting of a stem and planting it as a seedling. Flowers are produced in terminating one-half-inch-long spikes from the young shoots, on long stems. Cultivars with gray foliage are quite susceptible to infection. Lavender varieties are susceptible to frost injury. Lavender is harvested mechanically in foreign countries using specially designed machinery for essential oil purposes although it is harvested by hand for cut flower production. Rasteniev dni-Nauki. The machine was mounted on a trailer and the crop rows were protected by lateral bulkheads. XIV(5): 1-2, 32-36. Apr./May:10-15. Cultivars with dark flowers include Twickle Purple, Dwarf Blue, Hidcote, Royal Purple, Loddon Blue, Middachten Nana Atropurperea, Mitcham Cray, Munstead, and Summerland Supreme. Learning how to propagate is a fun and important skill for a lavender grower to learn, so we wanted to share our process with you. In addition, because most lavender varieties are clones, vegetative propagation (cuttings, layerings, and division of roots) is highly recommended to retain desirable traits. Stick the lower end of the cutting about 2 inches into the soil and firm the soil so that the cutting stands up straight. Lavender propagation by Lavender cuttings is easy to do if you have a large Lavender already growing in your garden. Frontier Natural Products Coop. Once rooted, cut the new plants from the mother plants and transfer to individual pots. The 2-lipped corolla is a bluish-violet color. Purchasing lavender seedlings or taking cuttings from existing plants is an easier way to grow lavender. To propagate by layering, select a long, healthy flexible stem and remove 4-6 inches of foliage, leaving 3-4 inches of foliage at the tip of the branch. pp. Vegetable Gardening — North Carolina Extension Gardener Handbook, Vernon G. James Research & Extension Center, Entomology – Insect Biology and Management, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center, Weed Management in Nurseries, Landscapes & Christmas Trees. The Herb Companion. Lavender is 70-80% water and takes 7 to 14 days to dry. While softwood cuttings are only available in spring, you can take hardwood cuttings in spring or fall. 1992. 1992. Oliver, P. 1996. In addition, he found that the sand increased flower and oil production when compared to a control group of plants which were not mulched. Center-Home Page. Few dozens of lavender plants growing in the backyard can make you rich. Tissue culture propagated plants can be purchased, however. If you are starting a large-scale lavender farm, you must have a proper marketing planning. If not, then you will need to find or befriend someone willing to share cuttings from their plant. The results indicated that flaming with this machine significantly reduced weeds but that the lavender plants were susceptible to damage if sufficient care was not taken (Martini, 1996). Botanical.com homepage 1995. www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/mgmh.html. Lavender species of commercial importance are native to the mountainous regions of the countries bordering the western half of the Mediterranean region of Europe. All lavender plants require well-draining soil and benefit from the addition of grit. Blossoms drain the plant of energy, and it’s unlikely that a stem will have the resources to form good roots if it is trying to bloom. An important aspect of propagation for essential oil production is an understanding of the phytochemistry associated with the lavender varieties. North Carolina citizens each year through local centers in the state's 100 counties As for varieties, I suggest you try many of them and see which ones grow best on your farm or garden, and which have the colors, fragrances, and forms you desire. Peter Cole, London. When choosing a lavender cultivar the first decision is to distinguish between use for essential oil production, cut flower production, or ornamental use. Under these conditions root growth is achieved by 14 days. It is characterized by large gray leaves with flowers ranging from lavender-blue to deep purple. Propagation by seed is slow (six months to transplant size) and germination rates are low and sporadic. Culinary uses include flavoring vinegars, jellies, and salads. Pythium – root rot Vokou, D., Vareltizidou, S., Katinakis, P. 1993. Propagating Lavender Plants You can start lavender from hardwood or softwood cuttings. This plant is a 2-3 foot shrub with fragrant, lilac-colored spikes blooming in midsummer. It needs very well-drained soil, so do whatever you can to provide that and definitely build raised beds. Growing dozens of lavender plants in the backyard of the house can make an individual earn a high profit. Lavandin varieties (Lavendula x intermedia) produce both the highest yields of flowers and highest concentrations of essential oil per acre. The flowers themselves are very shortly stalked, three to five together in the axils of rhomboidal, brown, thin, dry bracts. Create a hedge of this sweet smelling, pollinator loved plant on a budget. Choose non-flowered shoots of this year’s growth and ensure that they’re free from pests and disease. “Mercury owns the herb and it carries his effects very potently.” (Culpeper, 1652), Uses: Aromatic, carminative, antispasmodic, expectorant, stimulant, cosmetic, culinary, decorative, medicinal, antibacterial, and antiseptic. Read on to learn more. 113-6. Foster, S. 1984. Cuttings are then planted in 2.5 inch pots, pinched, and produce marketable plants in 6-8 weeks. Plants should be pinched back during the first year to avoid blooming so that the plant can put all of its energy into forming roots and lateral shoots. How to Strike a Lavender Cutting. Flowers for oil production are harvested when at about 50% blooming. McGimpsey, J. It has ovate-rhombic bracts like English lavender but the width to length ratio is 1.33 to 3.00 and bracteoles are always 1-4 mm long. N.C. Cooperative Extension has offices in every county, Herb/Specialty Crops Connection: Matching Growers & Buyers, Medicinal Herbs and Non-Timber Forest Products, Herb/Specialty Crop Connection-to Help Connect NC Herb & Specialty Crops Growers With the Industry, NC Specialty Crops Program Research Reports, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research & Extension Center, Exploring Stevia for Western North Carolina, GAPs for Medicinal Herbs (Good Agricultural Practices), Investigations Into the Cause of Gold-Flecking on the Surface of Ripe Tomato Fruit, Medicinal Herb Research and Yield Estimates, Medicinal Plants With a Potential Niche Market for Propagators, 16.