4. Post-exposure prophylaxis of immunocompetent persons who have not been previously immunized with rabies vaccine consists of: local wound treatment; rabies immunoglobulin (20 IU/kg body weight) given on day 0 with as much as possible infiltrated into and around the wound; and four 1.0 mL IM doses of rabies vaccine given on days 0, 3, 7 and 14. Rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) was assayed using the standard FAVN method [11,12] before and once every 3 months after vaccination for 1 year. Is the Subject Area "Rabies virus" applicable to this article? The second dose should be given seven days later. 2. (DNASTAR, Inc., Madison, USA). There were 10 cattle diagnosed with rabies in Kansas in 2015 and 3 cattle to date in 2016. VACCINATION SCHEDULE One ml dose of vaccine is recommended as an aid in preventing rabies in animals e.g. PCR products were purified and nucleotide sequencing was performed on both forward and reverse strands of DNA fragments by Jilin Comate Bioscience Co., China. Intramuscular regimens for rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis There are 3 intramuscular schedules for category II and III exposures: • The 5 dose regimen • The 2-1-1 regimen • The 4 dose regimen with RIG in both categories II and III Vaccines should be injected into the deltoid muscle for adults and children aged 2 years and more. In China, most of wild fox-associated strains were collected during 2013–2014 in the northwestern regions of XUAR and IMAR [4,5] and distinct from the other five China lineages, suggesting that the introduction and spread of the wild fox rabies epidemic resulted in part from cross-border transmission between China and Mongolia and/ or other neighbouring countries [14,15]. Age range. You need to be very conversant with your herd; follow the below Vaccination schedule for cattle to prevent the outbreak of various diseases at different ages. Overview. The inactivated virus is formulated with a highly purified adjuvant and is packaged in liquid form. As shown in Fig 1, the camel (▲) and dairy cattle (■) cases were classified as China I, currently the main lineage originating from dogs nationwide and most similar to the dog-associated strains collected from IMAR and NHAR. Dose 3 of the rabies vaccination is given after 21 to 28 days of the first dose Rabies vaccination after exposure consists of four doses. If the child is first seen in the Emergency Department, rabies immunoglobulin and the initial dose of the vaccine can be given. Give on day 0: Dose: 20IU/kg Administration: infiltrate as much as possible into the wound and around wound and … This portal has been developed as part of the national level initiative - India Development Gateway (InDG), dedicated for providing information / knowledge and ICT based knowledge products and services in the domain of social development. Our results indicate that at least three separate phylogenetic groups of rabies virus consistently exist and spread throughout Northwest China. The cut-off value of rabies RVNA titer, 0.50 IU/mL, is defined as the minimum antibody level affording complete protection [11]. Bats present a unique risk of rabies because their bites may be unknown or leave insignificant marks. Anyone who has been bitten by an animal, or who otherwise may have been exposed to rabies, should see a doctor immediately. Please leave all source links intact and adhere to applicable copyright and intellectual property guidelines and laws. Although all the collected samples were positive for rabies, the sequences of the rabies virus isolates from individual farms were absolutely identical to each other. The rabies virus is a lyssavirus and is highly neurotropic; the virus travels from the peripheral nerves to the spinal cord and into the brain. ABTC/ABC certification as quality PEP providers-PhilHealth Package Provision of Pre- Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) to high risk individuals and school children in high incidence area- … This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. 1. Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by exposure to saliva or nerve tissue of an animal infected with rabies virus or other lyssaviruses. Following exposure to a potential rabid animal, individuals should thoroughly wash the wound and seek immediate medical attention to assess the need for post exposure vaccination. In NHAR, no human case was reported before 2011, in which year there were 2 recorded rabies cases [3]. Patients with animal exposures may need post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to protect against rabies. Avoid being bitten or scratched. This option is for calves that will remain on the ranch at least 45 days after weaning. Rabies Vaccine BP: 3 doses: Day 0, 7, and 28*. Learn about bats and rabies Compared with a single injection with one (low-efficacy) or three doses (high-cost), a single injection of a double dose of canine vaccine provided low-price and convenience for local veterinarians while inducing levels of virus neutralizing antibodies indicative of protection against rabies for at least 1 year in the cattle and camels. Post exposure treatment consist of local treatment of wound, a course of potent and effective rabies vaccine that meets World Health Organization(WHO) recommendations and the administration of rabies immunoglobulin if indicated (6,7,8 ). If the offending animal originated from outside the herd/flock (e.g. KU928250) strains reported in this study. There are three subclasses of functional immunoglobulins (lgGs) present in the serum of Camelidae: lgG1 is a conventional heterotetrameric antibody, while lgG2 and lgG3 consist only of heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) [21]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004890.t001. Live Brucella abortus strain 19 freeze dried bacteria, each dose ≥ 40x109 organisms, (Vial: 5 dose freeze dried vaccine with 10 ml sterile diluent), 4-8 months old serologically negative female calves, Note:Only serologically negative female calves should be vaccinated with live B. abortus strain 19 while bulls and pregnant animals should not be vaccinated, Depending upon prevalence in a given area, vaccination against following diseases may also be taken up Anthrax, Suspension of live spores of attenuated non-capsulated strain of B. anthracis in 50% glycerinated saline, each dose ≥ 1x108 viable spores, one month before grazing season or prior to the time the disease usually occurs, Note:  Protect animals from overexertion 3 days following vaccination. Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals. If not available, consult with local health department or ISDH. Nobivac®3-Rabies vaccine is for vaccination of healthy dogs, cats, cattle and sheep as an aid in preventing rabies. Give on day 0: Dose: 20IU/kg Administration: infiltrate as much as possible into the wound and around wound and … Maintain cold chain for vaccines which may have to keep for 2-8 degree Celsius temperature. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Often there is tingling and severe pruritus at the site of the animal bite. Rabies is almost always contracted by exposure to a rabid animal. The usual placid expression is replaced by one of alertness. Rabies is usually transmitted to humans from the bite of an infected animal. In China, human rabies is a notifiable zoonosis through a comprehensive surveillance network; however, real-time surveillance of animal cases is still officially lacking. The good news is that this disease is preventable with the rabies vaccine. Do not vaccinate the animal 60 days before slaughter, Institute of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Tamil Nadu, **Live spores of highly antigenic nonencapsulated avirulent Sterne strain (34 F2) of B. anthracis in glycerine saline, Approx. However, domestic animals account for fewer than 10 percent of all reported rabies cases in animals. Clark County Animal Control: (702) 455-7710 then press “1” FMD inactivated antigens against O, A, and Asia-1 strains and formaldehyde inactivated Pasteurella multocida culture mixed together in light mineral oil emulsion, FMD inactivated antigens against O, A, Asia-1 and formaldehyde inactivated Pasteurella multocida culture, inactivated Clostridium chauvoei culture mixed together in light mineral oil emulsion, Formaldehyde inactivated cultures of Pasteurella multocida and Clostridium chauvoei adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide gel. The bites of all mammals in rabies endemic regions should be assessed for post-exposure prophylaxis, ... Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Schedule If no pre-exposure vaccination prophylaxis used. Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) and rabies vaccine given on the day of the rabies exposure, and then a dose of vaccine given again on days 3, 7, and 14. The vaccine contains killed-rabies whole virus strain CVS-11 as antigen, 100 mg/ml aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant and 0.1 mg/ml thiomersal as a preservative. Annually and in  adverse climatic conditions like unseasonal rains and cyclones, etc. According to the local veterinary clinical records, no overt clinical reactions, such as allergic reactions, mortality, anorexia, pyrexia, rumination, changes in behaviour, weight gain, milk production, male and female fertility, occurred during the three-month period following immunization. The local people did not know which kind of animal transmitted the infection, or how they could prevent rabies introduction from elsewhere. Rabies: Rabies Post Bite Vaccine: 1 ml S/C: 1 year: 0,3,7,14,28 & 90 days: ALSO READ: The Local and Exotic Breeds of Sheep . As well as the previously reported Arctic and Arctic-related China IV lineage in IMAR, at least three separate phylogenetic groups of rabies virus consistently exist and spread throughout Northwest China. A common clinical sign is a characteristic abnormal bellowing, which may continue intermittently until shortly before death. Blackleg 7-Way. Get contact details and address| ID: 5359545030 Cosmopolitan lineage) and were found to be highly similar to isolates from red foxes across countries in Eurasia. Rabies in South Carolina. We found that rabies viruses from these animals are closely related to dog-hosted China I and fox-associated China III lineages, respectively, indicating that the infections originated from two different sources (dogs and wild foxes). If the patient has a compromised immune system, provide an additional dose on day 28. Strictly follow vaccination schedule after consultation with veterinary experts. Background data on fox- and dog-associated cattle rabies in IMAR were collected by our laboratory in local farms from March 2013 to August 2015. In Europe, rabies in dogs is a growing concern,in Africa the threats come from Jackals and in Northern Europe, Wolves are a prime vector of the virus. Confirmed rabies has occurred as long as 7 years after exposure, but the reasons for this long latency are unknown.The first signs of illness are nonspecific: fever, anxiety, and malaise. Required Rabies Vaccination of Dogs, Cats, and Ferrets (345 IAC 1-5-2) All dogs, cats, and ferrets 3 months of age and older must be vaccinated against rabies. In northwestern China, rabies transmitted by stray dogs and wild foxes has caused heavy economic losses to local herdsmen following infection of domestic animals such as cattle, camels, goats and horses [4,5], yet providing preventive vaccination to the herds and/ or reservoirs in these regions could prevent these losses. rabies Generally, if the animal is available for laboratory exam, PEP may be delayed until lab results are available. Annually and in adverse climatic conditions like unseasonal rains and cyclones, etc. It travels to the spinal cord where it can incubate for months on end, although 3-12 weeks is common. Schedule. However, vaccine can be considered for children from the age of approximately 1 year. Cattle, sheep, pigs, horses and other mammals can also develop rabies. Booster dose can be considered at 10 years post-primary course if travelling again to a high risk area. The eyes and ears follow sounds and movement. No, Is the Subject Area "China" applicable to this article? Domestic animals like dogs, cats, horses and cattle also can transmit rabies to humans. Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Hyderabad. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004890.g002. A 5-dose schedule for postexposure vaccination against rabies is internationally accepted, and im injection is the only route acceptable in the United States. 6: Anthrax: 4 months and above-Annually in endemic areas. 1300 651 160 (DHS after hours) if you require rabies vaccine or immunoglobulin outside of these hours. Rabies is a rare disease in the United States, but it’s almost always deadly. 2. Revaccination is required every 3 years for dogs and cats, and annually for cattle, sheep and ferrets. Sera were separated by centrifugation following incubation at ambient temperature for 3h. The post exposure anti rabies vaccine schedule is as follows; First rabies vaccine dose to be given immediately after being bitten or … Shou-Feng Zhang, Over the years various vaccines and vaccination procedures such as pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP) have been used to control the losses incurred due to rabies. Rabies is a rare disease in the United States, but it’s almost always deadly. Since 2015, following a steep decline in wild fox numbers as a result of rabies, no fox or fox-associated case has been identified in this region. Reference sequences (S1 Table) of the major lineages within China and worldwide were taken from GenBank except the WQ14 (accession no. No, Is the Subject Area "Foxes" applicable to this article? Bats present a unique risk of rabies because their bites may be unknown or leave insignificant marks. What. Animal bites or other types of animal exposures such as scratches or contact with an animals saliva or brain material could potential transmit the rabies virus to humans. For more information on vibriosis refer to the Primefact 451 Vibriosis of cattle. • Rabies vaccine can prevent rabies. Conceived and designed the experiments: YL HPZ RLH. Contributed equally to this work with: The third dose should be given 21 or 28 days after the first dose. Antibiotic prophylaxis for animal bite ; Information specific to RCH. Rabies vaccines pose a unique set of considerations for the veterinarian in that their distribution and use is largely regulated by each individual state or jurisdictions within a state, and foregoing vaccination due to the age or health of the dog may not be prudent or permissible by law. The second dose should be given seven days later. Rabies serological testing in our laboratory has been annually approved by ANSES-Nancy Laboratory (France) since 2013 (http://ec.europa.eu/food/animals/pet-movement/approved-labs/index_en.htm). Length of protection. ISDH Rab i es Co n s u l t an t M-F 317.233.7125 Ev en i n g s , w eek en d s , an d h o l i d ay s 317.233.1325 Animal bites and the administration of rabies Booster injection is indicated 1-3 years after primary … Post-Exposure Prophylaxis 2.1 Decision to treat 2.2 Approach to Post-Exposure Prophylaxis 2.2.1 Management of Animal Bite Wound 2.2.2 Rabies Immunoglobulin (RIG) 2.2.3 Anti-Rabies Vaccines 2.2.3.1 Intradermal (ID) Regimen 2.2.3.2 Intramuscular (IM) Regimen 2.3 Management of re-exposure in previously vaccinated person 3. In countries where resources are available, variability in healthcare seeking behaviors and lack of adherence to recommended treatment guidelines may also contribute rabies deaths. For bites to the head and neck, give post-exposure prophylaxis as soon as possible and no later than 48 hours after exposure, even if the animal has been sent for testing. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood method in MEGA 7.0.14 [10], in which the reliability of the phylogeny groupings was evaluated using bootstrapping with 1000 replicates. In light of the history of rabies epidemics, we should clearly recognise the serious situation of animal rabies control as requiring hard and long-term work in China and not mask the truth simply because of the current decrease in human rabies cases. However, the rabies epidemic is still geographically expanding and new cases have been recorded in previously rabies-free and low incidence provinces such as Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), Qinghai, Gansu, and Tibet since 2011, because rabies control efforts in reservoir animals are even now being neglected in most regions of China [3]. All animal experiments described in this paper have been conducted according to the Guidelines on the Humane Treatment of Laboratory Animals stipulated by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China and approved (license no. (However, see the section on intradermal vaccination below.) However, the strains in both animal species were distinct from isolates from wild fox-associated and Arctic related cases, indicating at least three separate phylogenetic groups in West China; i.e., China I, China III and IV (Fig 1). Length of protection. Bites from unvaccinated dogs cause most of these cases. Keep records of vaccination for name of vaccine manufacturing company, Batch number, Expiry date, Dose & route of vaccine. Research from New Mexico State University using data from over 800 calves from 48 sources showed that separating weaning and feedlot entry by 41 days or more produced greater net return in the feedlot than when calves were shipped to the feedlot less than 40 days after weaning. Yes The results of the comparisons between groups were considered significantly different if p < 0.05. Cattle with furious rabies can be dangerous, attacking and pursuing people and other animals. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. This semi-enclosed farm bred over 300 bactrian camels for tourist pleasure, in a compound in which other animals such as dogs, cats and wild carnivores could roam freely. Integrated Farming Systems for North Eastern Hilly Region, Common animal diseases and their management, Vaccination schedule in cattle and buffalo, NDDB Handbook of Good Dairy Husbandry Practices, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). In this study, as part of an investigation of ways to prevent rabies epidemics in livestock, we report an analysis of domestic cattle and camel rabies cases in Ningxia Hui (NHAR) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) and the immune efficacy of canine inactivated rabies vaccines in these animals. The percentage identities and similarity scores of the viral protein sequences were calculated using DNAstar Lasergene software. Intramuscular regimens are expensive and waste vaccine. No minimum age stated in SPC. Rabies virus continues to cross carnivorous species and to infect humans and livestock in China. Only one sequence from each farm was used in phylogenetic analysis. Here are the schedules of cattle at different stages of growth. Once in a lifetime. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolated viruses is an alternative way to track rabies transmission. Quick Steps for Prevention: 1. No human patient-derived clinical materials and non-human primates were used in the completion of these studies. Rabies has been a continuous and serious threat to Chinese public health with three large epidemic waves since 1949 [1], reflecting the discontinuous effects of rabid animal control and prevention. Once in a lifetime. Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by exposure to saliva or nerve tissue of an animal infected with rabies virus or other lyssaviruses. Ye Liu, Rabies vaccine. Rabies vaccines pose a unique set of considerations for the veterinarian in that their distribution and use is largely regulated by each individual state or jurisdictions within a state, and foregoing vaccination due to the age or health of the dog may not be prudent or permissible by law. © 2006–2019 C–DAC.All content appearing on the vikaspedia portal is through collaborative effort of vikaspedia and its partners.We encourage you to use and share the content in a respectful and fair manner. PRIMEFACT 431, BEEF CATTLE VACCINES 2 . PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is the top Open Access tropical medicine journal, featuring an International Editorial Board and increased support for developing country authors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(9): Avoid being bitten or scratched. Local canine vaccine products can be used to induce levels of virus neutralizing antibodies indicative of protection against rabies in cattle and camels; however, licensed oral and inactivated vaccines for reservoir carnivores and large domestic animals are urgently needed for elimination of rabies in China. Due to the absence of compulsory vaccination of animals in NHAR, rabies can be easily spread from rabid animals to camels; however, no rabid animals had been seen in recent years in this region. Since there is no oral vaccine for stray dogs and wild animals and no inactivated vaccine for large domestic animals, rabies is not currently controlled in this country. the ‘Rabies Vaccine’ chapter in the Canadian Immunization Guide, with some amendments made by the Ministry of Health in order to adapt the information to an Ontario-specific context. Vaccine. Quick Steps for Prevention: 1. Every year, thousands of people around the world die from rabies. According to the results of FDA and RT-PCR, all brain samples collected from 11 beef cattle, 15 camels and 10 dairy cows were diagnosed positive for rabies in our laboratory and the sequences of the viral N gene were absolutely identical to each other in individual farms. Give both immunoglobulin and vaccine. Source : NDDB Handbook of Good Dairy Husbandry Practices, Binary ethyleneimine (BEI) inactivated FMD mineral oil emulsion vaccine containing a mixture of virus serotypes O, A and Asia-1, I After 4-6 weeks of primary vaccination, Every 44-48 weeks after 2nd booster vaccination, Inactivated tissue culture FMD virus strains O, A and Asia-1 adsorbed on Al (OH)3 gel and saponin as an adjuvant, Every 6 months after booster and every 4 months in endemic areas, Inactivated tissue culture FMD virus strains O, A, and Asia-1 adjuvanted with mineral oil, 2 ml  in the  mid-neck region, deep i/m, Haemorrhagic Septicemia (Galghotu/Ghurrka), Formaldehyde inactivated culture of Pasteurella multocida adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide gel. 7: IBR: 3 months and above: 1 month after first dose: Six monthly (vaccine presently not produced in India) 8: Rabies (Post bite therapy only) Immediately after suspected bite. When assessing patients with bite wounds from rabies susceptible animals: Contact Animal Control in the jurisdiction where the bite occurred to report rabies susceptible animal bites (NAC 441A.415) and request guidance regarding the need for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004890, Editor: Charles E. Rupprecht, Wistar Institute, UNITED STATES, Received: April 26, 2016; Accepted: July 11, 2016; Published: September 1, 2016. Clark County Animal Control: (702) 455-7710 then press “1” Composition Each dose contains Rabies strain Pasteur RIVM with potency ≥ 2 I.U. The post exposure anti rabies vaccine schedule is as follows; First rabies vaccine dose to be given immediately after being bitten … The RABV isolates in this study are marked using black triangles, black squares and black circles. Please note that this document ONLY summarizes post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) guidelines. Rabies Vaccine BP: 3 doses: Day 0, 7, and 28*. The tree is rooted with Irkut virus isolate JX442979, European bat lyssavirus type 1 and 2 isolates EU293109 and Eu293114. The good news is that this disease is preventable with the rabies vaccine. KM016901), WQ14-RF (accession no. In endemic countries, the duration of immunity resulting from vaccination should be determined in the target animals and, according to the OIE recommendation [8], vaccines should confer protective immunity for at least 1 year. Copyright: © 2016 Liu et al. Recommendations for post-exposure depend on the type of contact with the suspected rabid animal. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HPZ JXW. However, oral vaccines for stray dogs and wildlife remain at the laboratory-research level and for certain technical and official reasons, are not expected to be approved in China for production for another 5–10 years. For persons previously unvaccinated with rabies vaccine, the reduced regimen of 4 1-mL doses of HDCV or PCECV should be administered intramuscularly. Nobivac ® 3-Rabies vaccine is for vaccination of healthy dogs, cats, ferrets, cattle and sheep as an aid in preventing rabies. Fifteen brain tissue samples of clinically suspect and dead camels were collected from a bactrian (two-humped) camel farm in Shahu Lake district, Yinchuan city, NHAR and sent to our laboratory for rabies diagnosis by the local Center for Animal Disease Control and Prevention. One pair of primers covering the full length of the viral N cDNA was used as previously described [9]. Performed the experiments: YL SFZ JXW HNZ YMW LM FZ NL. In our study, we examined animal-bite … Get medical attention immediately and report to local health department. KU928249) and NX15 (accession no. The schedule for rabies vaccine is as follows: The first dose is given on any chosen day (counted as day zero). In the spring of 2013, local farmers reported dozens of dead foxes and domestic animals in the pastures of XUAR and IMAR which were confirmed by laboratory test as dying of rabies strains highly similar to isolates from red foxes in Mongolia [4,5]. Early symptoms can include fever and tingling at the site of exposure. Yes The cut-off value of rabies RVNA titer, 0.50 IU/mL, has been used to estimate the protective level after vaccination in this study; however, protection against RABV in vivo is complex, in which RVNA is only a partial contributor. In conclusion, since vaccination and serological test programs for reservoir animals are the basic and effective approaches to prevent established and imported rabies in China, more research should be devoted to the development of oral vaccines for dogs and foxes. Clearly, wild foxes and domestic animals should be considered for pre-exposure vaccination, not only to avoid financial losses or protection of wild animals, but because of their potential threat to human health. Post exposure treatment consist of local treatment of wound, a course of potent and effective rabies vaccine that meets World Health Organization(WHO) recommendations and the administration of rabies immunoglobulin if indicated (6,7,8 ). What. e0004890. Yes In this study 59 cattle from a dairy farm which routinely vaccinates against rabies were assigned into six groups according to age and vaccination histories. The WHO has recommended several different regimens for post-exposure prophylaxis, while individual countries decide on protocols for local use. An animal is currently vaccinated and can be considered immunized if the primary vaccination was given at least 28 days before the biting incident, or if the animal has received a primary vaccine and a booster vaccination within the timeframe recommended by the manufacturer. 3. 2009–045) by the Animal Welfare Committee of the Military Veterinary Research Institute, Changchun, China. Data Availability: The new N gene sequences in this study were submitted to GenBank with accession numbers KM016901, KM016899, KU928249 and KU928250. Provision of Post Exposure Prophylaxis to all rabies exposures/ animal bite victims (provided by RA 9482). 4. Recommendations for post-exposure depend on the type of contact with the suspected rabid animal. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004890.g001. However, fulminant disease can become symptomatic within 5–6 days; more worrisome, in 1%–3% of cases the incubation period is >6 months. Citation: Liu Y, Zhang H-P, Zhang S-F, Wang J-X, Zhou H-N, Zhang F, et al.

post bite rabies vaccination schedule in cattle

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