380,000) was hit by four major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks. 2011) and three subsequent earthquakes of Mw ≥ 5.9, most notably the 22 February 2011 Mw6.2 Christchurch earthquake (e.g., Kaiser et al. The Canterbury earthquake sequence is an on-going earthquake sequence, which started with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. Becker Pages 73-81 Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Omissions? An earthquake occurred in Christchurch on 14 February 2016 at 1:13 p.m. local time (00:13 UTC) and initially recorded as 5.9 on the Richter scale, but subsequently reviewed as 5.7. Christchurch earthquake. 6.3 magnitude earthquake part of aftershock sequence - 25/02/2011 24/02/2011 12:32 pm This week’s devastating magnitude 6.3 earthquake centred southeast of Christchurch was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude 7.1 quake near Darfield, 40km west of the city, an earthquake geologist said today. EARTHQUAKE SEQUENCE A magnitude7.1 earthquake struck the Canterbury region of New Zealands South Island on September 4, 2010; the epicenter was located near the town of Darfield, approximately 35 kilometers west of Christchurch on the previously unknown Greendale fault. This morning has seen the next series of events in the now 16-month long Christchurch Earthquake sequence in New Zealand. The removal of wreckage and official damage assessments were ongoing. Kate was on the ground for Tonkin + Taylor mapping land damage and providing critical engineering advice for the Earthquake Commission and NZ Government from the first aftershock. Author information: (1)Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand janet.spittlehouse@otago.ac.nz. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The iconic Anglican cathedral of Christchurch, N.Z., damaged by the earthquake that struck the city on Feb. 22, 2011. Some damaging aftershocks followed the main event, the strongest of which was a magnitude 6.3 shock known as the Christchurch earthquake that occurred nearly six months later on 22 February 2011. Abstract Objective: To track population mental wellbeing following the 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquakes and after‐shocks. In the final analysis, it became clear that the most widespread and severe affects to infrastructure and land had been caused by repeated liquefaction events and the damage each one induced when millions of tonnes of silt and water spewed to the earth's surface. Data from GNS Science, New Zealand. The Canterbury earthquake sequence has to be examined as an example of New Zealand crisis management in action, he says. The first earthquake in September 2010 was the moment the ‘rubber hit the road’ for geotechnical engineer, Mike Jacka. Revisiting the Canterbury earthquake sequence after the 14 February 2016 Mw 5.7 event Matthew W. Herman1 and Kevin P. Furlong1 1Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA AbstractOn14February2016,anMw5.7(GNSSciencemomentmagnitude)earthquakerupturedoffshore east of Christchurch, New Zealand. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep. For Kate, there's one clear, key lesson to learn from the Christchurch earthquakes. The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. 3,000.…. GeoNet staff deployed portable earthquake recorders to collect information on the rich aftershock sequence of the earthquake. Two large tremors struck the Christchurch metropolitan area during the early afternoon on June 13, 2011. On September 4, 2010, an M 7.0 earthquake struck 45 km (28 miles) west of Christchurch; dubbed the Darfield earthquake, it was the first in a more than year-long series of quakes that impacted the Canterbury region. The aftershocks line up along a 100 kilometre fault zone that runs from west to east and extends into Christchurch itself. The earthquake struck the city of Christchurch in New Zealand on 22 February 2011. The plaintiffs lodged two claims with Vero. All of the earthquakes occurred on previously Because this aftershock was centred very close to Christchurch, it was much more destructive and resulted in the deaths of 185 people. 185 people lost their lives, over 7000 were injured. Canterbury earthquake sequence Mark C. Quigley 1 , Sarah Bastin 1 , and Brendon A. Bradley 2 1 Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8014, New Zealand Half of Christchurch's urban roads had to be rebuilt, 30% of the sewerage system was damaged and 32 million litres of water were lost when a major crack opened up in the floor of the city's largest reservoir. The Earthquake Commission received over 470,000 insurance claims. According to GNS Scienceseismologists, the energy released in Christchurch was equivalent to … 10, 20 - 22 The main outcome paper evaluated 952 participants and reported that as exposure to earthquakes increased, there were increases in rates of major depression, other anxiety disorders and nicotine dependence, … earthquake sequence that began on 4 September 2010 This report synthesises the lessons captured from the . Bexley and other suburbs were flooded after water mains broke; after the waters receded, quake-damaged roads and homes remained covered with silt. When the Darfield earthquake happened, many of us felt that Christchurch had dodged a bullet as the earthquake occurred at 4.35am on a Saturday morning and was centred about 40km west of the city centre, which helped lessen the human impact. A discussion of resilience and sustainability: Land use planning recovery from the Canterbury earthquake sequence, New Zealand W.S.A. The Canterbury earthquake sequence has been a long-lived complex earthquake sequence, which started with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. Time-lapse visualisations of the February 22 2011 and September 4 2010 earthquakes and … While the anomaly peaked on February 18th, it was spread over a number of days prior to the earthquake. It was established that there was an increase in psychological distress in people who had been exposed to the Canterbury earthquakes. Over the months that followed, it was established that more than 180 people had died in the quake; many of them had been killed outright as structures collapsed and debris fell in the streets, crushing cars and buses as well. The sequence of many thousands of aftershocks that followed the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake of 3 September 2010. * Earthquake rattles Christchurch early on Saturday morning "These sorts of small earthquakes are still higher than they were before the Canterbury earthquakes sequence started in 2010. Those shakes, collectively known as the Canterbury earthquake sequence, were the biggest insured event in New Zealand history and at the time the 4 th most expensive insured, global natural … The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. Map of the central part of New Zealand's South Island depicting the intensity of shaking caused by the earthquake of Sept. 4, 2010, and the strong aftershock of Feb. 22, 2011. Ground water measurements from 1,000+ piezometers Airborne LIDAR and high resolution imagery following multiple Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Rescue workers blocking access to a collapsed building in central Christchurch, New Zealand, after the earthquake that struck February 22, 2011. Modelling coordination in hospital emergency departments through … The demise of the URM building stock in Christchurch during the 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence, Earthquake Spectra 30, 253 – 276. focusing on five specific areas: Recovery Governance Arrangements, , Land Decisions, Recovery Legislation https://www.britannica.com/event/Christchurch-earthquakes-of-2010-2011, New Zealand History - Christchurch earthquake kills 185. The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence underscores the importance of capturing the impact of change in the short-term and medium-term seismicity rate in areas that have been recently impacted by an earthquake when performing seismic risk analysis. Spittlehouse JK(1), Joyce PR(2), Vierck E(2), Schluter PJ(3), Pearson JF(4). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Saunders, J.S. Buildings and roads across the Christchurch region, which had been weakened by the September event and its aftershocks, were severely damaged or destroyed in the February event. The fault, later named the Greendale Fault, appeared about 50 to 56 miles (80 to 90 km) southeast of the boundary between the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates, and part of the fault became visible at the surface because of the earthquake. The focus of this temblor was relatively shallow, however, occurring only 3 miles (5 km) beneath the surface of Heathcote Valley, a suburb of Christchurch located on the Banks Peninsula. Due to on-going aftershock activity and Description of the Canterbury earthquake sequence and effects The Darfield earthquake of magnitude 7.1 occurred on 4 September 2010 at 4.35 a.m., causing damage to the immediate Darfield area, and as far away as the nearby city of Christchurch and the Kaiapoi township. The report titled Lessons from the Canterbury earthquake sequence provides a whole-of-government perspective on the lessons from the Government’s recovery efforts from the Canterbury earthquake disaster.DPMC serves the Executive, Governor-General, Prime Minister and Cabinet, through the provision of impartial advice and support. The severest aftershock occurred at 12:51 pm on February 22, 2011. Prior evidence suggests that typically there is a greater presence of distress in people who had greater exposure to such events. Impromptu community efforts distributed food and helped dig out the property of affected residents. PLEASE ENABLE JAVASCRIPT IN YOUR INTERNET OPTIONS. Pop. The 2010–2011 New Zealand earthquake sequence New Zealanders showed resilience in the aftermath of the quake that rocked Christchurch in autumn of 2010. Damaged as a result of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence. Property at Worsleys Road, Cracroft, Christchurch. The plaintiffs entered into a settlement agreement with the defendant for a fixed sum. Thousands of smaller aftershocks occurred in the months that followed. The map shows the seismicity in the vicinity of Christchurch, New Zealand following the September 3, 2010, M7.0, Darfield earthquake (yellow circles) and the February 21, 2011, M6.3, Christchurch earthquake (orange circles). The role of insurance in promoting resilience and sustainable development in post-earthquake Christchurch The three M≥6.0 aftershocks included the devastating M6.3 Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, which resulted in 185 deaths and extensive damage. Tonkin + Taylor’s Virginie Lacrosse found people really “got it” when she likened geotechnical engineers to doctors. A number of studies were undertaken post the sequence of earthquakes in Christchurch. Google Scholar | Crossref Hossain, L., and Kit, D. C., 2012. Canterbury Earthquake Sequence ~15000 Case Histories 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 (AUC) Year Model Published LPI Random Guess RW98 IB08 BI14 Mea06 Perfect Model AIJ01 Gea18 Finite-sample uncertainty shown via bootstrap simulations Given large data, small differences tend to be statistically significant 2.5 thand 97.5 Percentiles Tonkin + Taylor's Operations Manager for the Christchurch Earthquake Recovery Project, Shamus Wallace and his wife Lisa had two children after the earthquake sequence began. NOW 50% OFF! The earthquakes have had a devastating effect on the central city and the people of Christchurch and surrounding areas. GeoNet staff deployed portable earthquake recorders to collect information on the rich aftershock sequence of the earthquake. Other seismologists, however, suggested that stresses built up by these earlier temblors likely contributed to those of June 13, as well as to a series of shallow marine tremors ranging from magnitude 4.0 to magnitude 6.0 that shook the Christchurch area on December 23, 2011. Natural disasters can create significant uncertainty for individuals and entire cities. The liquefaction clean-up experience in Christchurch following the 2010-2011 earthquake sequence has emerged as a valuable case study to support further analysis and research on the coordination, management and costs of large volume deposition of fine The Christchurch earthquake sequence has been on-going since September 4th 2010. TEC chart for Christchurch earthquake February 18th, 2011. Canterbury’s most severe earthquake prior to these occurred on 1 September 1888 about 100km north of Christchurch in the Amuri district. Jackson & Arizona are part of the generation of Christchurch children now know as 'the earthquake babies'. Like the main shock, however, the February 22 aftershock stemmed from the deformation along regional plate boundaries where the Pacific and Indo-Australian tectonic plates push against one another. In September 2010 a strong earthquake struck Christchurch and its surrounding region; although there were no fatalities, the city suffered extensive damage to buildings and infrastructure. Earthquake data from the portable instruments are used in conjunction with data from permanent GeoNet monitoring stations and portable instruments that had remained deployed following the M7.1 Darfield earthquake. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to … Christchurch has undertaken many of these pre-event planning suggestions after the earthquake sequence. 2A) (Gledhill et al., 2000, Robinson and McGinty, 2000) and generated up to MMI ~ 5 in Christchurch (Pettinga et al., 2001). The earthquake’s epicentre was located some 25 miles (40 km) west of Christchurch near the town of Darfield, and the focus was located about 6 miles (10 km) beneath the surface. At 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday 22 February 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake caused severe damage in Christchurch and Lyttelton, killing 185 people and injuring several thousand. The day after the quake, Prime Minister John Key declared a state of national emergency in the quake area, expanding his government’s powers to coordinate rescue and recovery efforts. It was a … For Christchurch, the positive results of a proactive approach (such as emergency preparedness, stringent building codes, community education) are evidenced in relation to the forces generated by the earthquake. back’. GNS Science says the Canterbury aftershock sequence is expected to last for some years until Christchurch returns to pre-2010 levels of earthquake activity. Objective: In September 2010 Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by a 7.1 magnitude earthquake, followed by a prolonged sequence of significant aftershocks including a fatal aftershock in February 2011. The largest two earthquakes, magnitude (M) 7.1 on September 4th and the M 6.3 on February 22nd 2011 caused immediate and significant damage to the city of Christchurch. JP Morgan, Chase & Co ranked the CES as the third most costly earthquake event in history behind the 2011 Japanese subduction earthquake/tsunami and the 1994 Californian earthquakes. A number of studies were undertaken post the sequence of earthquakes in Christchurch. I would especially like to recognise the dedication of the team on the ground - they are doing a brilliant job. It was caused by right-lateral movement along a previously unknown regional strike-slip fault in the western section of the Canterbury Plains. A clustered sequence of earthquakes beginning with the 1994 M w 6.7 Arthurs Pass earthquake and including the 1994 M w 6.0, 1995 M w 6.0, and 1995 M w 6.2 Cass earthquakes occurred with epicentres < 40 km apart in the eastern Southern Alps (Fig. Map showing recent earthquake activity in and around Christchurch, New Zealand. (2)Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch… About six faults in total moved during the Darfield earthquake, which triggered a long sequence of aftershocks. Corrections? One of the world's largest natural disasters. Christchurch was … About six faults in total moved during the Darfield earthquake, which triggered a long sequence of aftershocks. However, in doing so it has still attempted to focus on longer-term adaptation and sustainability in its forward planning. Methods: The Canterbury Wellbeing Survey, a … The earthquake’s epicentre was near Lyttelton, just 10 km south-east of Christchurch’s central business district. The Canterbury earthquake sequence. 380,000) was hit by four major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks. Map showing recent earthquake activity in and around Christchurch, New Zealand. 15,000 families lost their homes and 8,000 families were permanently displaced. The Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) is a longitudinal birth cohort study that has published four papers evaluating the psychological impacts of the earthquake sequence. Sometimes it can take months to identify the sequence, as was the case with the 2010–2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence, comprising the September 2010 M 7.0 Darfield earthquake and its major aftershock, the February 2011 M6.2 Christchurch earthquake, and the Landers Sequence. Earthquake data from the portable instruments are used in conjunction with data from permanent GeoNet monitoring stations and portable instruments that had remained deployed following the M7.1 Darfield earthquake. Lyttelton sustained widespread damage to buildings, wharves, and other infrastructure. Time-lapse visualisations of the February 22 2011 and September 4 2010 earthquakes and … Eddy Snook took a deep interest in quakes when the Christchurch earthquake sequence began in the months before the deadliest tremor occurred. Christchurch’s city centre was hit particularly hard and was evacuated. Between September 2010 and the end of 2011, 4 major earthquakes and more than 11,200 aftershocks shook the residents of Christchurch and surrounding towns. We have already had the Kaikoura earthquake since. YOU NEED JAVASCRIPT TO RUN THIS SITE. It began a series of earthquakes and aftershocks lasting till around 2016. Tonkin + Taylor's Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Programme Leader, John Leeves and liquefaction expert, Dr Sjoerd van Ballegooy reflect on the unprecedented liquefaction damage that devastated Greater Christchurch. 2014. This earthquake had a death toll of 184, and it caused more structural damage to Christchurch than the main earthquake. Click on image for larger PDF version. Detailed liquefaction maps illustrating the extent and severity of liquefaction across Christchurch triggered by the sequence of earthquakes including multiple episodes of severe re-liquefaction are next presented. Church officials believed that the latter structure was beyond repair, and the spire of the Anglican cathedral collapsed. Policy under Southern Response. Between September 2010 and December 2011, NZ's second largest city (pop. Before Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2010) Christchurch, New Zealand Backdrop. This disaster has proven that in the worst of times, we see the best of New Zealand.”. The February 22nd 2011 aftershock affected Christchurch more than the original quake, because this aftershock was directly underneath Christchurch whereas the original was about 40km away. Other towns in the area around Christchurch were seriously affected, although fewer lives were lost. Policy under Vero. since the beginning of the Canterbury earthquakes sequence. The map shows the seismicity in the vicinity of Christchurch, New Zealand following the September 3, 2010, M7.0, Darfield earthquake (yellow circles) and the February 21, 2011, M6.3, Christchurch earthquake (orange circles). He serves currently as the editor of Earth and life sciences, covering climatology, geology, zoology, and other topics that relate to... Woman surveying the damage to her home near Christchurch, close to the epicentre of the earthquake that struck New Zealand's South Island on Sept. 4, 2010. Rescue efforts were at times hampered, however, by the potential dangers posed by the aftershocks. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, also called Canterbury earthquakes, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. The GeoNet map below shows the location of this series of events, which have occurred to the east of Christchurch:. Earthquake Services Limited General Proceeding Property at Happy Home Road, Westmorland, Christchurch. Appendix D: Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Christchurch Soil Sites Report prepared by Bradley Seismic Ltd. Bradley, B. According to the NZ Earthquake Commission report, the chart shown here for Christchurch corresponds to the time of greatest anomaly in the ionosphere prior to the Christchurch earthquake. This earthquake had a death toll of 184, and it caused more structural damage to Christchurch than the main earthquake. Christchurch and surrounding areas have experienced major earthquakes since a 7.1 magnitude earthquake on 4 September 2010. One of the worst incidents was the collapse of the Canterbury Television (CTV) building, in the city centre, which was razed almost entirely. Three nearby accelerometers allow calibration between the geological expressions of liquefaction and the intensity of earthquake-induced surface ground motion at the site. The aftershock’s depth and close proximity to Christchurch contributed to substantial shaking, surface cracking, and liquefaction (the conversion of soil into a fluidlike mass) in the city and surrounding area. Although one of these events were large earthquakes (the largest is M=6.0), the shallow depth (6 km for the largest), proximity to the city and … In February 2011 Christchurch was struck by another, far more-damaging earthquake whose epicentre was located just a few miles from the city’s central business…, …region were struck by a strong earthquake on September 4, 2010—about magnitude 7, centred approximately 20 miles (30 km) west of the city. The most destructive of these was the 22 February 2011 earthquake, centered close to Christchurch… The GeoNet map below shows the location of this series of events, which have occurred to the east of Christchurch:. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Extensive vertical and horizontal ground movement caused considerable damage to buildings and land. Further, it was predicted that because the quake had rendered the land so unstable in some places, certain areas might have to be abandoned altogether. METHODS: The Canterbury Wellbeing Survey, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected adults aged ≥18 years resident in Christchurch, was repeated biannually from April 2013 until June 2017 and annually thereafter. 2012) that resulted in 185 fatalities. In contrast to the main shock, this aftershock was generated by oblique thrust faulting (where one side of the fault is thrust upward over the other) along a different, undiscovered fault. One claim has been accepted by Vero, Although one of these events were large earthquakes (the largest is M=6.0), the shallow depth (6 km for the largest), proximity to the city and … Updates? After Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2017) ©travelieu.com Christchurch, New Zealand Backdrop. Often referred to as the Valentine's Day earthquake, it was centred in the sea off New Brighton at a depth of 15 kilometres (9.3 mi). OBJECTIVE: To track population mental wellbeing following the 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquakes and after-shocks. He had done his Master’s degree at Canterbury University in earthquake engineering, specifically, liquefaction potential for Christchurch.

christchurch earthquake sequence

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